CD4+ helper Th cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Th cell activation, differentiation, and immune function are regulated by costimulatory molecules. Inducible costimulator (ICOS) is a novel costimulatory receptor expressed on activated T cells. We, as well as others, recently demonstrated its importance in Th2 cytokine expression and Ab class switching by B cells. In this study, we examined the role of ICOS in rheumatoid arthritis using a collagen-induced arthritis model. We found that ICOS knockout mice on the DBA/1 background were completely resistant to collagen-induced arthritis and exhibited absence of joint tissue inflammation. These mice, when immunized with collagen, exhibited reduced anti-collagen IgM Ab’s in the initial stage and IgG2a Ab’s at the effector phase of collagen-induced arthritis. Furthermore, ICOS regulates the in vitro and in vivo expression of IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in rheumatoid arthritis. These data indicate that ICOS is essential for collagen-induced arthritis and may suggest novel means for treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Roza I. Nurieva, Piper Treuting, Julie Duong, Richard A. Flavell, Chen Dong
Studies in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) suggest a possible role for histone deacetylases (HDACs) in skewed gene expression and disease pathogenesis. We used the MRL-lpr/lpr murine model of lupus to demonstrate that HDACs play a key role in the heightened levels of both Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression that contribute to disease. The availability of specific HDAC inhibitors (HDIs) such as trichostatin A (TSA) and suberonylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) permits the study of the role of HDACs in gene regulation. Our results indicate that HDIs downregulate IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA and protein levels in MRL-lpr/lpr splenocytes. This effect on gene transcription is associated with an increased accumulation of acetylated histones H3 and H4 in total cellular chromatin. To elucidate the in vivo effects of TSA on lupuslike disease, we treated MRL-lpr/lpr mice with TSA (0.5 mg/kg/d) for 5 weeks. Compared with vehicle-treated control mice, TSA-treated mice exhibited a significant reduction in proteinuria, glomerulonephritis, and spleen weight. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased expression of HDACs leading to an altered state of histone acetylation may be of pathologic significance in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. In addition, TSA or other HDIs may have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of SLE.
Nilamadhab Mishra, Christopher M. Reilly, Doris R. Brown, Phil Ruiz, Gary S. Gilkeson
Autoimmune (type 1) diabetes mellitus results from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells by T lymphocytes. Prediction of cell-mediated autoimmune diseases by direct detection of autoreactive T cells in peripheral blood has proved elusive, in part because of their low frequency and reduced avidity for peptide MHC ligands.
Jacqueline D. Trudeau, Carolyn Kelly-Smith, C. Bruce Verchere, John F. Elliott, Jan P. Dutz, Diane T. Finegood, Pere Santamaria, Rusung Tan
In the work presented here, we explored the influence of leptin on the kinetics of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) onset, in the EAE-associated inflammatory anorexia, and in the development of pathogenic T cell responses. We found that the expression of serum leptin increased before the clinical onset of EAE in disease-susceptible C57BL/6J (H-2b) and SJL/J (H-2s) strains of mice, which are models of chronic-progressive and relapsing-remitting EAE, respectively. This increase in serum leptin correlated with disease susceptibility, reduction in food intake, and decrease in body weight. Indeed, acute starvation, which is able to prevent the increase in serum leptin, delayed disease onset and attenuated clinical symptoms by inducing a T helper 2 cytokine switch. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a parallel in situ production of leptin in inflammatory infiltrates and in neurons only during the acute/active phase of both chronic-progressive and relapsing-remitting EAE. We also found that leptin secretion by activated T cells sustained their proliferation in an autocrine loop, since antileptin receptor antibodies were able to inhibit the proliferative response of autoreactive T cells in vitro. Given that leptin appears to regulate EAE susceptibility, inflammatory anorexia, and pathogenic T-cell immune function, we postulate that it may offer a potential target in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Veronica Sanna, Antonio Di Giacomo, Antonio La Cava, Robert I. Lechler, Silvia Fontana, Serafino Zappacosta, Giuseppe Matarese
Nelli Shushakova, Julia Skokowa, Jurriaan Schulman, Ulrich Baumann, Jörg Zwirner, Reinhold E. Schmidt, J. Engelbert Gessner
Takao Ando, Rauf Latif, Alla Pritsker, Thomas Moran, Yuji Nagayama, Terry F. Davies
Neal B. Blatt, Jeffrey J. Bednarski, Roscoe E. Warner, Francesco Leonetti, Kathryn M. Johnson, Anthony Boitano, Raymond Yung, Bruce C. Richardson, Kent J. Johnson, Jonathan A. Ellman, Anthony W. Opipari Jr., Gary D. Glick
Ming-Chao Zhong, Nicole Kerlero de Rosbo, Avraham Ben-Nun
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